Dr. Warren M. Zapol, M.D., is the emeritus Anesthetist-in-Chief at Massachusetts General Hospital and the Reginald Jenney Professor of Anaesthesia at Harvard Medical School. Dr. Zapol has a broad background studying the metabolic and physiological effects of low oxygen levels in many species and has performed laboratory and clinical studies of hypoxia over a period of 45 years. He has studied acute and chronic hypoxia and its effects on the pulmonary and systemic circulation. Dr. Zapol administers and has been the PI for a decade of a Specialized Center of Research on the Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome He studied the effects of diving hypoxia in human breath-hold divers (Japan and Korea) and was PI on eight National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored expeditions to Antarctica studying the diving adaptations of the Weddell seal. He administered these projects (staffing, human and animal research protections, budget) and collaborated with numerous investigators to produce high quality peer-reviewed publications. His laboratory has several monitored environmental chambers, allowing studies of acute and chronic hypoxic exposures in rodents lasting up to six weeks.